Saturday, January 25, 2020
The movie Hoop Dreams shows you the difficulties and obstacles that come in the way of dreams. Although itÃ¢â¬â¢s said that if you believe in a dream long enough it will come true, but in Hoop Dreams and A Raisin in the Sun you are shown the harsh realities of the falseness of that statement. And that the reality of a dream not coming true hits you like a brick wall. Many obstacles get in the way of the road to dreams in both stories. In both stories, all families suffer from having little knowledge, and it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t help that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re all black. Also being poor and living in the ghetto makes things that much harder. Pregnancies also put big bumps in the road to success, in both instances it makes the families come together and try their hardest to make it through. However, there are also many different obstacles that come in the way for each family. In Hoop Dreams, both William and Arthur are given much support to fulfill their dreams of getting to the NBA, but Walter in A Raisin in the Sun is only given grief on getting his liquor store. This can point the young immature teens to giving them more hope that a very rare dream will come true. Also, the two ballplayers do have talent to help them start down the road to success, but that can be very misleading, all Walter has is the nagging of his buddies Bobo and Willy. The toughest of t he obstacles to overcome was when William injured his knee and it affected his basketball career for a long time. He never really did get over it, he...
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Comedy of menaceÃ¢â¬ was a term first used to describe Harold Pinter's plays by the drama critic Irving Wardle. He borrowed the term from the subtitle of one of David Campton's plays, The Lunatic View: A Comedy of Menace. A comedy is a humorous play which contains variations on the elements of surprise, incongruity, conflict, repetitiveness, and the effect of opposite expectations and so on in order to amuse and make the audience laugh. A menace is something which threatens to cause harm, evil or injury which seems quite incompatible with the idea of a comedy. However, as The Birthday Party shows, it is quite possible for a playwright to create both humour and menace in the same play, and even at the same time, in order to produce certain effects and to transmit ideas to the audience. Comedy is present in The Birthday Party from the very first scene; it is a way of gently introducing the audience to the world which Pinter is trying to create. The humour is quite subtle at first, for example the exchange between Petey and Meg about whether Stanley is up or not plays on the words up and down: Ã¢â¬Å"Meg: Ã¢â¬Å"Is Stanley up yet? Petey: I don't know. Is he? Meg: I don't know. I haven't seen him down. Petey: Well then, he can't be up. Meg: Haven't you seen him down? Ã¢â¬Å". Although the repetitions in this short exchange will not make the audience burst out with laughter they can make them smile and the humour also lulls them into a sense of comfort. A joke with a similar effect is made through another short dialogue between Meg and Petey in which Meg continually asks who is having a baby with Petey insisting that she won't know her until finally saying it's Ã¢â¬Å"Lady Mary SplattÃ¢â¬ , to which Meg replies anticlimactically Ã¢â¬Å"I don't know herÃ¢â¬ . This anticlimax as well as the incongruous name of the woman (we do not imagine a Ã¢â¬Å"LadyÃ¢â¬ having the surname Ã¢â¬Å"SplattÃ¢â¬ ) creates humour and again lulls the audience into a sense of peace and normality. As well as this we get a sense of Meg's stupidity, Petey's resignation to it and their relationship being unfruitful and routine from their humorous yet uninteresting dialogue. Indeed, half the reason what they say seems funny is because of how pointless it is. Thus, Pinter highlights the uselessness of Meg and Petey's conversation and in extension the uselessness of everyday small talk. The worrying thing for the audience about this comedy is that it evidences a kind of futility: Meg does notseem to have much of a life beyond these pointless conversations. Thus, while the humour of the dialogue lightens the tone of the scene it also poses a question on the passivity and futility of the lives of the characters and the lives of many people in general. Humour also serves to draw attention to the strangeness of Meg and Stanley's relationship. Indeed, Meg treats him like a child despite his being a man of thirty. We are made aware of the fact that Stanley is not a child when he comes on stage for the first time. Before this Meg's calling him Ã¢â¬Å"that boyÃ¢â¬ and trying to get him out of bed by calling Ã¢â¬Å"Stan! Stanny! Stan! I'm coming up to fetch you if you don't come down! I'm coming up! I'm going to count to three! One! Two! Three! Ã¢â¬ makes the audience think he must be a child. Thus when we see him for the first time the incompatibility between the reality and what we have been lead to believe creates humour. The inappropriateness of Meg's treatment of Stanley and his being a fully grown man also creates humour at other moments of the play, for example when she asks him if he Ã¢â¬Å"pa[id] a visit this morningÃ¢â¬ (went to the toilet). While Meg and Stanley's conversation has some comedic value it could also make the audience feel slightly uneasy, perhaps they will ask themselves why this woman of sixty treats a man of thirty like a boy and why he plays along with her at times. Their exchanges, for example, the dialogue revolving around Stanley calling Meg a Ã¢â¬Å"succulent old washing bagÃ¢â¬ and Meg's reaction to it, seeming to believe that it's a rude word is quite funny for the audience as again it highlights her silliness but makes their relationship even stranger as she speaks Ã¢â¬Å"coylyÃ¢â¬ : she does not only play a maternal role but is also somewhat flirtatious. Thus humour, while seeming quite light can have a deeper meaning and cover up something a lot more serious about a character and problems they may have. Likewise, Stanley's attempts at humour when talking to Lulu are a kind of proof of his social inadequacy. When she says that it's stuffy he replies Ã¢â¬Å"Stuffy? I disinfected the place this morning. Ã¢â¬ And when she talks about his getting under Meg's feet he says he Ã¢â¬Å"always stand[s] on the table when she sweeps the floorÃ¢â¬ . These two lines are both untrue and when saying them Stanley's aim seems to be to make a joke. However, they both fall flat with Lulu and we could also imagine with the audience. Consequently, comedy, or rather attempts at it, evidence Stanley's lack of social skills. Therefore humour can be a way to introduce the audience to characters and their relationships with each other, and also make the audience think about these characters and perhaps their problems while keeping them interested in the play itself. The parody of small talk also allows Pinter to pose questions to the audience about the futility of many of our lives. Comedy does not just appear alone in this play, humour often appears during a somewhat frightening scene in which characters menace another. Some of these scenes are power struggles between characters or scenes where one character asserts themselves over another. For example, in the scene where Stanley tells Meg about the wheelbarrow he is obviously trying to menace her with his repeated questions (Ã¢â¬Å"Do you know what? Ã¢â¬Å", Ã¢â¬Å"Have you heard the latest? Ã¢â¬Å", Ã¢â¬Å"And do you know what they've got in that van? Ã¢â¬ etc), the anonymous Ã¢â¬Å"theyÃ¢â¬ , the imminence of Ã¢â¬Å"todayÃ¢â¬ and his actions as he Ã¢â¬Å"advance[s] upon herÃ¢â¬ . Despite the menacing aspect of this scene the fact that what he is threatening her with is a wheelbarrow adds a slightly bizarre and humorous tone. Indeed, the audience could laugh at Meg, thinking only she could be afraid of a wheelbarrow. However, her reaction to the threats is quite strong as she becomes Ã¢â¬Å"breathlessÃ¢â¬ and cries out Ã¢â¬Å"hoarselyÃ¢â¬ . She seems to be afraid of it because it's new and different, an example of human fear of the unknown, and also perhaps of being Ã¢â¬Å"taken awayÃ¢â¬ as Stanley repeats twice Ã¢â¬Å"They're looking for someoneÃ¢â¬ . Either way the humorous aspect of someone being afraid of a wheelbarrow heightens the menacing atmosphere for the audience as we don't understand her fear; if she was afraid of something more normal we would not feel so ill at ease. Thus in this scene, Pinter makes use of a comedic aspect with a menacing atmosphere in order to make the audience aware of our own fears of what we do not understand. Comedy and menace also appear together in both the first music hall scene and just before it. In the Ã¢â¬Å"sitting down sceneÃ¢â¬ , a certain amount of humour can be derived from the fact that three grown men are playing a childish game about who will sit down first, but what this game represents is a power struggle. As with the wheelbarrow, this silly game is symbolic of something much more serious; here, the person who sits will lose power. This menacing part of the scene is shown by the insistence of Goldberg and McCann that Stanley sit down and McCann's yelling Ã¢â¬Å"That's a dirty trick! I'll kick the shite out of himÃ¢â¬ . Interestingly, Stanley seems to try to lighten the atmosphere with the joke (Ã¢â¬Å"Now you've both had a rest you can get out! ) which causes McCann to say this, but he only succeeds in heightening the tense and menacing atmosphere of the scene. Again, humour does not take away from the threat but adds to it, making it worse. The fact that Stanley's joke doesn't lighten the scene as he hoped can also show the inadequacies of language. Indeed, o ne would not expect a joke to create more threats and menace. Thus, through the pairing of humour with menace Pinter shows the audience how words do not always achieve the desired effects and therefore is evidence of our own shortfalls as we do not always accomplish what we would like to through our speech. However, Goldberg does achieve what he wants to with his use of comedy and threats. This is because he wants to create a more menacing scene in order to completely destroy Stanley. His humour comes from the common expressions that he sometimes modifies, such as Ã¢â¬Å"You're beginning to get on my breastsÃ¢â¬ , and the different registers of these expressions, for example he says Ã¢â¬Å"Why are you driving that old lady off her conk? Ã¢â¬ which seems very colloquial compared to his normal speech. He also makes an ironic joke when he says that McCann is Ã¢â¬Å"the life and soul of any partyÃ¢â¬ , which is evidently false as the audience can tell that he isn't from how little he speaks. Goldberg's jokes contrast with the serious and controlling man who makes Stanley sit down simply by saying quietly Ã¢â¬Å"Webber. SIT DOWNÃ¢â¬ . Indeed, we feel more menaced by Goldberg than by McCann because as McCann has already yelled at Stanley we feel as though we know what he is capable of but we don't really know how much Goldberg can do with his power of speech. The power which comes from the paradoxical pairing of humour with menace can be seen in the first music hall scene and in the scene with Lulu. In the music hall scene, the fast pace of the short, nonsensical questions creates a sense of urgency and fear as we do not know what the point of all these questions is. While some of the questions and accusations seem serious, such as Ã¢â¬Å"Why did you leave the organisation? Ã¢â¬Å", others create humour such as, Ã¢â¬Å"When did you last have a bathÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"McCann: You throttled her. Goldberg: With arsenicÃ¢â¬ . At the end of the scene the question they are asking him is the well known joke: Ã¢â¬Å"Why did the chicken cross the road? Ã¢â¬Å". It is this question, one of the most unanswerable of all the ones they ask him that finally makes him break down; he can no longer answer. The fact that a joke question is one of the causes of Stanley's destruction shows the strength of humour. Indeed, Freud theorised that Ã¢â¬Å"[in] addition to the one who makes the joke, there must be a second [person] who is taken as the object of the hostile aggressiveness, and a third in whom the joke's aim of producing pleasure is fulfilledÃ¢â¬ . In this scene, Goldberg and McCann make the jokes to amuse the audience while Stanley is the victim. However, the audience does not really laugh at these jokes, in fact they serve more to make us uneasy, but we still recognise the humour in them and perhaps even appreciate it. The same three person structure is found in the scene where McCann menaces Lulu. In that scene, Lulu is the victim while McCann tells her Ã¢â¬Å"savagelyÃ¢â¬ to confess while Goldberg creates humour by picking up everything she says and turning it against her. For example she says Ã¢â¬Å"You taught me things a girl shouldn't know before she's been married at least three times! , to which Goldberg replies Ã¢â¬Å"Now you're a jump ahead! What are you complaining about? Ã¢â¬Å". The audience will appreciate Goldberg's humour while also finding what Lulu herself says funny despite the fact that she is evidently upset and angry, as it says in the stage directions. This humour followed so quickly by McCann's threats will again make the audience uneasy. This uneasiness of the audience is partly caused by our finding Goldberg, and perhaps even McCann, funny when we feel perhaps that we shouldn't. By being amused by them we ally ourselves with them, the two characters who we know to be manipulative and controlling. Indeed, through their (Goldberg's especially) humour we are manipulated by them to laugh at the other characters. Thus, Pinter shows by placing comedic elements with menacing ones that humour can be powerful and creates relationships between us: relationships which have a strong element of control to them, as our feelings and reactions are manipulated by Goldberg, just like the other relationships which we see in the play. Therefore, we can say that Pinter's Ã¢â¬Å"comedy of menaceÃ¢â¬ is a way to show us how he believes that all relationships revolve around one person asserting their power over another. The atmosphere of menace which is present in this play does not only appear in conjunction with humour. Instead it often relies on the unknown or things not being fully explained. For example, when Goldberg and McCann first arrive, they come through the back door without knocking, which is in itself quite odd, then Goldberg says he wasn't looking for a number when McCann asks him how he knows it's the right house. This is quite an eerie thing to say as the audience can ask themselves what he was looking for as normally you recognise a house by the number. Indeed, it is this abnormality and not knowing how Goldberg knew which house he wanted which creates a sense of a threat or that something bad will happen. This can show the audience how we feel a need for things to be Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ , we fear things that we don't understand or that are new. Likewise, McCann's refusal to join Stanley in conversation at the beginning of the second act, giving short answers and asking little in return is really a refusal to make normal conversation. These short responses seem quite menacing because they contrast against Stanley's seemingly open discussion. The audience could believe that Stanley's trying to tempt McCann into conversing with him properly is not only to get information about why he is there but to also make McCann seem more normal and thus less menacing. Like the opening scene with its pointless dialogue this scene shows the human need for speech in order to keep the fear of a threat, in this case represented by McCann, at bay. Language is not the only menacing thing, there are also several small actions or events which add to the menacing atmosphere of the play: the synchronised whistling, McCann's tearing the newspaper into strips and the lights during the birthday party. None of these things should seem that menacing by themselves but the context in which they are placed makes them seem so. Two Ã¢â¬Å"strangersÃ¢â¬ whistling the same tune together while talking, a grown man sitting at a table tearing paper, a light being shone on a man at his own birthday party as though he is a police suspect and finally a blackout which makes Stanley become violent all seem abnormal and strange for the audience: we do not understand why they happen (except for the blackout, and then we only find out later). It is this not understanding and abnormality of the events which adds to the menacing atmosphere of the play. Therefore we can say that the threatening ambiance of the play is created through language, in particular humour and the unknown, but also through certain eerie and strange events or deeds. The reason Pinter uses these things to make the audience afraid is to show us our fear of what we do not know and the abnormal. However, Pinter makes sure that some of the menacing atmosphere is elevated at times, which actually emphasises how strong this atmosphere is. The threatening ambiance is lessened by the use of humour. This humour can be found in the first dialogue between Goldberg and McCann, for example, when McCann says that Goldberg, who is obviously a Jew, is a Ã¢â¬Å"true ChristianÃ¢â¬ . There is also humour with the dialogue between Goldberg and Meg, after the first music hall scene, when he is admiring her dress and slaps her bottom, as well as before when he calls her a tulip and she asks Ã¢â¬Å"What colour? Ã¢â¬Å". Pinter uses comedy at these moments in the play in order to reassure the audience and to keep some suspense: if the whole length of the play was filled with a menacing atmosphere we would know that Stanley will lose the power struggle from the beginning. The humour also brings a certain level of normality back to the proceedings of the play so that the menacing atmosphere can increase slowly, again creating more suspense. Thus, I agree completely with the description of The Birthday Party as a Ã¢â¬Å"comedy of menaceÃ¢â¬ . While comedy and menace both appear separately in the play it is together that they affect the audience most. The association of two seemingly opposing themes in one play allows the audience to realise some of Pinter's preoccupations concerning the inadequacy of language but also its power, how we have some irrational fears concerning the unknown and the abnormal, how relationships work through manipulation and power struggles and the passivity of so many people throughout their lives. As well as this, the fact that we can associate these two terms, finding something menacing yet humorous at the same time, could also be a way for Pinter to show the paradoxical nature of human beings.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
So you want to be president of the United States. You should know: Making it to the White House is a daunting task, logistically speaking. Understanding how the president is elected should be your first priority. There are volumes of campaign finance rules to navigate, thousands of signatures to gather across all 50 states, delegates of the pledged and unpledged varieties to glad-hand, and the dreaded Electoral College to deal with. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re ready to jump into the fray, letÃ¢â¬â¢s walk through the 11Ã key milestonesÃ of how the president is elected in the United States. Step 1: Meeting the Eligibility Requirements Presidential candidates must be able to prove they are a Ã¢â¬Å"natural born citizenÃ¢â¬ of the U.S., have lived in the country for at least 14 years and are at least 35 years old. Being Ã¢â¬Å"natural bornÃ¢â¬ doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean you have to have been born on American soil, either. If one of your parents is an American citizen, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s good enough. Children whose parents are American citizens are considered Ã¢â¬Å"are natural born citizens,Ã¢â¬ regardless of whether theyÃ¢â¬â¢re born in Canada, Mexico or Russia. If you meet those three basic requirements for being president, you can move on to the next step. Step. 2: Declaring Your Candidacy and Forming a Political Action Committee ItÃ¢â¬â¢s time to get with the Federal Election Commission, which regulates elections in the United States. Presidential candidates must complete a Ã¢â¬Å"statement of candidacyÃ¢â¬ by stating their party affiliation, the office theyÃ¢â¬â¢re seeking and some personal information such as where they live. Dozens of candidates complete these forms in every presidential election Ã¢â¬â candidates most Americans never hear and who are from obscure, lesser-known and unorganized political parties. That statement of candidacy also requires presidential hopefuls to designate a political action committee, an entity that solicits money from supporters to spend on television ads and other methods of electioneering, as their Ã¢â¬Å"principal campaign committee.Ã¢â¬ All that means is the candidate is authorizing one or more PACs to receive contributions and make expenditures on their behalf. Presidential candidates spend much of their time trying to raise money. In the 2016 presidential election, for example, Republican Donald TrumpÃ¢â¬â¢s principal campaign committee Ã¢â¬â Donald J. Trump for President Inc. Ã¢â¬â raised about $351 million, according to Federal Election Commission records. Democrat Hillary ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s principal campaign committee Ã¢â¬â Hillary for America Ã¢â¬â raised $586 million. Ã Step 3:Ã Getting on the Primary BallotÃ In As Many States As Possible This is one of the most little-known details of of how the president is elected: To become a major partyÃ¢â¬â¢s presidential nominee, candidates must go through the primary process in every state. Primaries are elections held by political parties in most states to narrow the field of candidates seeking the nomination to one. A few states hold more informal elections called caucuses. Taking part in primaries is essential to winning delegates, which is necessary to winning the presidential nomination. And to take part in the primaries, youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got to get on the ballots in each state. The entails presidential candidates collecting a specific number of signatures in each state Ã¢â¬â in bigger states they need hundreds of thousands of signatures Ã¢â¬â if they want their names to appear on the ballot. So the point is: every legitimate presidential campaign must have a solid organization of supporters in each that will work to meet these ballot-access requirements.Ã If they come up short in even one state, theyre leaving potential delegates on the table. Step 4:Ã Winning Delegates to the Convention Delegates are the people who attend their partiesÃ¢â¬â¢ presidential nomination conventions to cast votes on behalf of the candidates who won the primaries in their states. Thousands of delegates attend both the Republican and Democratic national conventions to perform this arcane task. Delegates are often political insiders, elected officials or grassroots activists. Some delegates are Ã¢â¬Å"committedÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"pledgedÃ¢â¬ to a particular candidate, meaning they must vote for the winner of the state primaries; others are uncommitted and can cast their ballots however they choose. There are also Ã¢â¬Å"superdelegates,Ã¢â¬ high-ranking elected officials, who get to support the candidates of their choice. Republicans seeking the presidential nomination in the 2016 primaries, for example, needed to secure 1,144 delegates. Trump crossed the threshold when he won the North Dakota primary in May 2016. Democrats seeking the presidential nomination that year needed 2,383. Hillary Clinton reached the goal in June 2016 following the Puerto Rico primary. Step 5:Ã Picking a Running-Mate Ã Before the nominating convention takes place, most presidential candidates have chosen a vice presidential candidate, the person who will appear on the November ballot with them. Only twice in modern history have the presidential nominees waited until the conventions to break the news to the public and their parties. The partyÃ¢â¬â¢s presidential nominee has typically chosen his running mate in July or August of a presidential election years. Step 6:Ã Doing the Debates The Commission on Presidential Debates holds three presidential debates and one vice-presidential debate after the primaries and before the November election. While the debates typically donÃ¢â¬â¢t influence the outcome of elections or cause major shifts in voter preferences, they are critical to understanding where candidates stand on important issues and evaluating their ability to perform under pressure. A bad performance can sink a candidacy, though it rarely happens anymore because politicians are coached on their answers and have become skilled at skirting controversy. The exception was the first-ever televised presidential debate, betweenÃ Vice PresidentÃ Richard M. Nixon,Ã a Republican,Ã and U.S. Sen.Ã John F. Kennedy, a Democrat, during the 1960 campaign. Nixons appearance was described as being green, sallow and he appeared to beÃ need of a clean shave. Nixon believed the first televised presidential debate to be just another campaign appearance and did not take it seriously; he was Ã Ã¢â¬â¹pale, sickly looking and sweaty, an appearance the helped to seal his demise.Ã Kennedy knew the event was momentous and rested beforehand. He won the election. Step 7:Ã UnderstandingÃ Election Day What happens on thatÃ Tuesday after the first Monday of November in a presidential election year is one of the most misunderstood facets of how the president is elected. The bottom line is this: voters do not directly elect the president of the United States. They instead choose electors who meet later to vote for a president. Electors are people chosen by the political parties in each state. There are 538 of them. A candidate needs a simple majority Ã¢â¬â votes from 270 of those electors Ã¢â¬â to win. States are allotted electors based on their population. The larger a states population is, the more electors is is allocated. For example, California is the most populous state with about 38 million residents. It also holds the most electors at 55. Wyoming, on the other hand, is the least populous state with fewer than 600,000 residents; it gets only three electors. According to the National Archives and Records Administration: Ã¢â¬Å"Political parties often choose electors for the slate to recognize their service and dedication to that political party. They may be state elected officials, state party leaders, or people in the state who have a personal or political affiliation with their partys presidential candidate.Ã¢â¬ Step 8: Picking Up Electors and Electoral Votes When a presidential candidate wins the popular vote in a state, he wins electoral votes from that state. In 48 out of 50 states, the successful candidates collects all electoral votes from that state. This method of awarding electoral votes is commonly known as winner-take-all. In two states, Nebraska and Maine, the electoral votes are distributed proportionally; they allocate their electoral votes to the presidential candidates based on which did better in each congressional district. While those electors are not legally bound to vote for the candidate who won the popular vote in their state, it is rare for them to go rogue and disregard the will of voters. Ã¢â¬Å"Electors generally hold a leadership position in their party or were chosen to recognize years of loyal service to the party,Ã¢â¬ according to the National Archives and Records Administration. Ã¢â¬Å"Throughout our history as a nation, more than 99 percent of electors have voted as pledged.Ã¢â¬ Step 9:Ã Understanding the Role of the Electoral College Presidential candidates who win 270 or more electoral votes are called the president-elect. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t actually take office that day. And they canÃ¢â¬â¢t take office until the 538 members of the Electoral College gets together to cast votes. The meeting of the Electoral College takes place in December, after the election, and after state governors receive the Ã¢â¬Å"certifiedÃ¢â¬ election results and prepares Ã Certificates of Ascertainment for the federal government. The electors meet in their own states and then deliver the tallies to the vice president; the secretary of the Department of State in each state; the national archivist; and the presiding judge in the districts where the electors held their meetings. Then, in late December or early January after the presidential election, the federal archivist and representatives from the Office of the Federal Register meet with the Secretary of the Senate and the Clerk of the House to verify the results. Congress then meets in a joint session to announce the results. Step 10: Getting Through Inauguration Day Jan. 20 is the day every aspiring president looks forward to. It is the day and time prescribed in the U.S. Constitution for the peaceful transition of power from one administration to another. It is tradition for the outgoing president and his family to attend the swearing-in of the incoming president, even if they are from different parties. There are other traditions, too. The president leaving office often write a note to the incoming president offering encouraging words and well wishes. Congratulations on a remarkable run, Obama wrote in a letter to Trump. Millions have placed their hopes in you, and all of us, regardless of party, should hope for expanded prosperity and security during your tenure. 11. Taking Office This, of course, is the final step. And then the hard part begins.
Tuesday, December 31, 2019
Title: The Evolution of serial Killers Introduction: For centuries Stories about Serial killers have graced the covers of newspapers and magazines. Famous stories like Ã¢â¬Å"Jack The RipperÃ¢â¬ and Edward Ã¢â¬Å"EdÃ¢â¬ Gein, which influenced many popular films such as Psycho and The Silence of the Lambs. There are so many questions surrounding this topic one being: Nature versus Nurture? Is this need to kill a simply male completion in an effort to show status and be Ã¢â¬Å"The Alpha MaleÃ¢â¬ ? If this is true then why are there Female serial killers? Or is this just natures survival of the Ã¢â¬Å"fittestÃ¢â¬ like animals Ã¢â¬Å"kill or be killedÃ¢â¬ ? Ultimately can this be broken down to a scientific explanation? DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of evolution of certain genetic traits thatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦When children are neglected they donÃ¢â¬â¢t learn about love, trust, empathy, and how to interact with others. As a result they may not learn them later in life. 2. Serial killers may have been physically or se xually abused as a child or have witnessed abuse. Also the child has had an absent parent or parents. 3. The way the child was disciplined may have also had an effect on that child. a. For example, if the father is strict and the mother is sot, the child grows to hate authority and manipulate mother. II. Serial Killers Genetics and Metal illnesses A. Scientists have found specific locations in the brain that are used as humans moral compass. B. By finding places in the brain where behavioral traits lie, we can begin to understand that there may be people who have neuropathological disorders. 1. Current research points out that serial killers show difficulty processing, understanding, and using emotion material. a. The material tested used disturbing pictures and emotional words. b. The right hemisphere of the brain that is used for processing the emotional importance of words, researchers speculate Ã¢â¬Å"psychopaths, who are unempathic, callous, and emotional shallow, would rely less than non-psychopaths on right- hemisphere-based decoding strategies.Ã¢â¬ 2. Neurological disorders are extremely common in criminals. a. In one study, 15 inmates were examined. In each inmate, the researchers found evidence of server head injuryShow MoreRelatedSerial Killer : Serial Killers939 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhat is a serial killer? Serial killers are very sick and distraught compared to others. As indicated by the Vancouver Sun, a serial killer is characterized as somebody who is responsible for more than three killings over a period that than traverses over one month.In 2005 the fbi changed it to at least two killings with no reference to intention or time span. Generally, serial killers murder for some kind of mental benefit. 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Many people grow up differently from others, some people grow up in a safe environment surrounded with caring people and others grow up in a completely different environment being missed treated by others, therefore are serial killers made or born? A serial killer is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a person who commits more than three murders over a period that spans more thanRead MoreSerial Killer And Serial Killers1644 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSerial Killer A serial killer is someone who has killed three or more people on separate occasions with enough time between, allowing them to calm down or reflect on what they did. There are separate categories for serial killers. The types of serial killers are organized killers, unorganized killers, and medical killers (Crime museum, 2015, para. 1, 2, 3). Beverley Allitt was considered to be under the medical killer category. Allitt killed a total of 4 children in less than a year span (McCrystalRead MoreSerial Killer : Serial Killers909 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAccording to an FBI study, Ã¢â¬Å"there have been approximately 400 serial killers in the United States in the past century, with anywhere from 2,526 to 3,860 victims (Hickey). No one really understands serial killers. It is actually quite difficult to comprehend how the mind of a serial killer works. Some believe that a serial killer feels strongly attracted by a specific physical characteristic in the victim. It could be his or her appe arance: facial features, clothes, or even personality. On the otherRead MoreSerial Killers And The Serial Killer1080 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageshelp? This was the technique one of the most infamous serial killer Ted Bundy used to approach his victims and ultimately murder them. B. Background and Audience Relevance: Today, I will be speaking to you about serial killers. C. Speaker Credibility: I decided to do my topic on serial killers because, criminology is something IÃ¢â¬â¢m genuinely interested in and would like to learn more about it myself. D. Thesis: By learning about serial killers, hopefully in the future they can be captured fasterRead MoreSerial Killers : A Serial Killer1820 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesunderstand a serial killers background to get an understanding of how childhood trauma could lead to their need to kill. Although there are no exact factors that would absolutely cause a child to grow up into a serial killer, research found by Laurence Miller in Ã¢â¬Å"Serial killers: II. Development, Dynamics, and Forensics,Ã¢â¬ suggest that there are several common factors found in multiple serial killersÃ¢â¬â¢ childhoods. For example, some of the leading childhood characteristics found among serial killers includeRead MoreSerial Killers : A Serial Killer Essay1003 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCrimes and criminals define not only places, but certain time periods. Serial killers are usually the ones that individuals tend to remember the most. An individual is considered a serial killer when they murder three or more individ uals during a period of time with a cooling off period between each crime (Frailing Harper, 2016). The purpose of this paper is to discuss one of the most controversial and yet famous serial killer, Theodore Robert Bundy. Something interesting that attracts the attentionRead MoreSerial Killers : The Serial Killer Essay2076 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThis serial killer was chosen because this serial killing pair is the most infamous English serial killers duo in the 1990s. Fred and Rosemary West were not convicted of all the murders they participated in; however, they were sentenced to life imprisonment. Also, this case is interesting because Rosemary West, to this day, does not claim to know anything about the murders even though she has victims that survived her attacks and have spoken against her in court. These serial killers have been coveredRead MoreFemale Serial Killers : A Serial Killer Essay1190 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFemale Serial Killers For the most part the domain of serial homicide is ruled by men. There is however some females that has and can be serial killers. According to Bartol Bartol (2005) there have been at thirty six female serial killers throughout the United States. In general society we do not like to believe that women are capable of committing such acts, but as we continue to alter our views, moral, and beliefs of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s equality and feminism there is room for women to be just as likely
Monday, December 23, 2019
With every corner we turn in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s culture, we become more and more aware of the archetypes that surround us. Archetypes are the works of a typical character, situation, setting, or symbol that can be found in fantasy and reality. An example would be the renowned medieval story Sir Gawain and the Green Knight by Pearl Poet. The author permeates the story with situational, symbolic, and character archetypes that illustrate the profound life of Sir Gawain. Sir Gawain was apprehensive of his journey at first, but as time passes, he began to make choices that unveils to the audience the true flawed knight that he was. During Sir GawainÃ¢â¬â¢s journey, he is met with countless types of situational archetypes that involved conflict, characterÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This sense of regret doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop Sir Gawain from carrying on from his task, because he then follows with the theme of the story, and that was to stay chivalrous and prideful even if it cost him his lif e. On his journey Sir gawain comes across a great deal of character archetypes. These would include trickster, the Ã¢â¬Å"lordÃ¢â¬ (The Green Knight), and the supernatural aid (God). These character archetypes ultimately found their place into the stories theme,conflict, and contribution to Sir GawainÃ¢â¬â¢s character development. The first character archetype would be the Green Knight who serves as the trickster/mentor. The reason why the Green KnightÃ¢â¬â¢s the trickster is because he discusses himself as the lord to try and trick Sir Gawain into committing adultery with his wife, but he also serves as a mentor because in the end the Green Knight teaches Sir Gawain the theme of the story. We can conclude with this because Sir Gawain states, Ã¢â¬Å"I shall look upon it...and remind myself of the fault and faintness of the flesh.Ã¢â¬ (Weston )This statement ultimately shows that all of the Green KnightÃ¢â¬â¢s tricks soon serve as a moral to Sir Gawain, teaching him to hum ble himself everytime he looks upon his scar. This also shows a small resolution towards Sir GawainÃ¢â¬â¢s conflict,because everyone time he looks at thatShow MoreRelatedArchetypes In Sir Gawain And The Green Knight829 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesArchetypes can be found in most literary work, especially in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight most characters or objects served to aid in the development of the hero by being either a situational, character, color, or a symbol archetype. The poem begins with a challenge being presented to the knights of the Round Table by the Green Knight. While seeing that no one else will accept the challenge, putting CamelotÃ¢â¬â¢s honor at stake, Gawain accepts and then realizesRead MoreArchetypal Conflicts In Sir Gawain And The Green Knight785 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmonomyth archetypes, it becomes apparent to one what common patterns are found when following along with the heroÃ¢â¬â¢s journey. In Sir Gawain and the Gr een Knight, readers follow Gawain on his quest to redeem the honor of his community. A number of archetypal situations occur to Sir Gawain and serve to promote GawainÃ¢â¬â¢s conflicts, character, and theme development. Throughout Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, many conflicts rise to the surface as the medieval story, portraying a prideful knight and hisRead MoreArchetypes In Sir Gawain And The Green Knight1100 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn almost any story, whether novel or poem, lies a hero. Depending on the path, a variety of archetypes usually accompany the hero. The Merriam Webster dictionary defines Ã¢â¬Å"archetypeÃ¢â¬ as Ã¢â¬Å"the original pattern or model of which all things of the same type are representations or copies.Ã¢â¬ Joseph CampbellÃ¢â¬â¢s A Hero With A Thousand Faces introduces the common archetypes often found in various pieces of literature, explaining Ã¢â¬Å"The parallels will be immediately apparent; and these will develop a vast andRead MoreThe Truth Behind the Knight: the Presence of Archetypes in Sir Gawain the Green Knight2908 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesThe Truth Behind the Knight: The Presence of Archetypes in Sir Gawain the Green Knight In the medieval story of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, we are introduced to a young man, who, like many of young men, is trying to discover himself and travel through his rite of passage. He is trying to figure out who he is in life, and while in his journey, passes through many phases that mold him into one of the great Knights of the Round Table that old King Arthur wanted to serve with him. These phasesRead MoreThe Role Of Women In Literature1587 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages When people are going through events in his or her life they look for a way to express or find something that relates to the feelings that they have. Majority of the time these feelings are expressed through literature. An example is the archetypes that can be found throughout literature. In the British Middle Ages, the people were grouped into different social classes using the feudal system. Society was mainly broken into two separate groups, the nobles, and the peasants. However, there was alsoRead MoreLiterar y Analysis Of Sir Gawain And The Green Knight1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescertain time periods have been expressed and implemented through the depiction of the heroesÃ¢â¬â¢ experiences on their journeys and the knowledge they gain by the questÃ¢â¬â¢s end. For example, in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, a chivalric romance written in the Late Middle Ages, Gawain epitomizes a knight with the characteristics that knights from the Late Middle Ages were expected to possess according to the requirements outlined in the rules of chivalry, such as honor and valor. Likewise, Beowulf, the heroRead MoreEssay on The Role of Women in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight5387 Words Ã |Ã 22 PagesThe Role of Women in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight In the Fourteenth Century, Feudalism and its offspring, chivalry, were in decline due to drastic social and economic changes. In this light, _Sir Gawain and the Green Knight_ presents both a nostalgic support of the feudal hierarchies and an implicit criticism of changes, which, if left unchecked will lead to its ultimate destruction. I would suggest that the women in the story are the Gawain poets primary instruments in this critique andRead MoreAspects Of The Arthurian Romance In Sir Gawain And The Green Knight1335 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof feminism when juxtaposed with Sir Gawain and the green knight, transform the perception of Arthurian Romance especially in context of the portrayal of the feminine figure. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is a late 14th-century Middle English alliterative romance that outlines an adventure of Sir Gawain, a knight of the round table of King Arthur. In the tale, the challenge from a mysterious warrior is accepted by sir Gawain. The warrior looks completely green from his clothes and hair to his beardsRead MoreThe Separate Journeys Of Beowulf And Sir Gawain1761 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesBeowulf and Sir Gawain The purpose of the hero in literature has evolved through time, and there is no denying the differences of two medieval heroic archetypes, Beowulf, and Sir Gawain. In both poems, the hero is faced with several different tests, each with proposed solutions and goals. Anglo-Saxon epic and romantic stories focus on the central hero who stands alone as the ideal example of perfected chivalry. Even though there are countless similarities that both manuscripts share, Sir Gawain and BeowulfRead More Paganism and ChristianityÃ¢â¬â¢s Roles in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight2350 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesPaganism and ChristianityÃ¢â¬â¢s Roles in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight GawainÃ¢â¬â¢s belief by the end of Ã¢â¬Å"Sir Gawain and the Green KnightÃ¢â¬ is that he has failedÃ¢â¬âin honesty, fidelity, and faith. As a representative of an ideal Christian whose priority is to remain godly (and knightly), he sees the outcome of his quest quite differently than the Green Knight. The Green Knight also prizes honesty, though not always at the cost of life, a view not necessarily shared by Gawain. Strangely enough, King ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s
Sunday, December 15, 2019
Research indicates that the majority of individuals drinks less frequently and consume less alcohol when they do drink following alcoholism counseling, although short-term outcomes (e. g. 3 months) are more favorable than those from studies with at least a year follow-up. We will write a custom essay sample on Counseling Strategies Paper or any similar topic only for you Order Now Positive outcomes yield benefits for alcoholics and their families, as well as leading to savings to society in terms of decreased costs for medical, social and criminal justice services. Reviews of counseling outcome for alcohol problems have developed from early efforts to summarize findings, to reports which derived outcome statistics, to more recent publications examining efficacy in controlled studies with data on cost effectiveness. Clearly, the literature suggests that a variety of approaches can be effective, some more than others because of the nature of the counseling and treatment and the intensity of the approach. The community reinforcement approach (CRA) attempts to increase clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ access to positive activities and makes involvement in these activities contingent on abstinence. This approach combines many of the components of other behavioral approaches, including monitored disulfiram, behavior contracting, behavioral marital therapy, social skills training, motivational counseling and mood management. Some of the largest counseling effects in the literature have been associated with the community reinforcement approach (Miller et al. , 1995). Compared to more traditional treatment approaches, the CRA has been shown to be more successful in helping inpatient or outpatient alcoholics remain sober and employed. Although community reinforcement is a more intense treatment approach, it is consistent with the basic philosophy of several other effective approaches. The ability to establish rewarding relationships, to focus on changing the social environment so that positive reinforcement is available, and to reduce reinforcement for drinking are emphasized with the community reinforcement and other approaches. The key appears to be helping the client to find and become involved in activities that are more rewarding than drinking. To the degree that stress causes unpleasant physical sensations and associated dysphoric moods, it is a high-risk situation for excessive alcohol use. An important coping skill for clients to learn is how to use the physical and emotional signs of stress as cues to Ã¢â¬Å"stop, look and listenÃ¢â¬ and to try something to cope besides heavy drinking. Relaxation training is a fundamental coping skill in the repertoire of a person trying to avoid excessive drinking. It can help clients to reduce their anxiety and tension when facing stressful situations and minimize their typical levels of motor and psychological tension. Relaxation training can also assist a person to remain calm and to think clearly in circumstances that require effective problem solving and fast action. Many individuals believe in the tension-reducing properties of alcohol, whether or not they are true, and, without an alternative means to relax, excessive drinking may be a personÃ¢â¬â¢s only means of coping with painful sensations and unpleasant emotions. Relaxation training fosters general stress-reduction and can be taught to clients using various techniques that either reduce muscle tension, develop deep breathing skills or focus on the use of pleasant imagery (Monti et al. , 1989). In addition to relaxation training, both meditation and exercise have been shown to have similar stress reducing properties. Contingency management procedures assist clients to re-structure their environment to decrease the rewards associated with alcohol use and increase the costs of excessive drinking. The principles of contingency management are based on operant or instrumental learning approaches to human behavior. Contingency management techniques include providing incentives for compliance with alcohol treatment and positive reinforcement from spouses or friends for sobriety. This approach is combined with punishment, in the form of withdrawal of attention and approval contingent on the resumption of excessive drinking, and provisions for social support, recreational activities and vocational counseling. In recent years there has been a growing recognition of the importance of providing treatment for alcoholism that is tailored to patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ level of insight and motivation to work on their substance misuse. Rather than emphasizing direct confrontation of patients who deny problems related to their substance misuse, social pressure to acknowledge the evils of alcohol abuse and immediate endorsement of abstinence as a treatment priority, motivational approaches initially focus on relationship formation and harm reduction. While motivational strategies have gained some ascendance in the treatment of primary substance misuse, their importance has been even more rapidly accepted in work with individuals with comorbid disorders, whose psychiatric disorders are often inextricably tied to their use of alcohol and drugs. A useful overarching heuristic in work with all comorbid disorders is provided by the concept of stage wise counseling. The stages of counseling are based on the observation that people with an alcohol misuse problem who change their behavior over the course of treatment typically progress through a series of stages, and that each stage is characterized by different attitudes, behaviors and goals. By understanding a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s current stage of counseling, counselor can optimize treatment so that it matches his/her current level of motivation, and avoid driving the person away from treatment by attempting interventions that are mismatched to his/her motivation. Four stages of counseling have been identified: engagement, persuasion, active treatment and relapse prevention (Mueser et al. , 2003). Efforts to change another personÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior are doomed to failure if a therapeutic alliance has not first been established. Therefore, at the engagement stage the primary goal of counseling is to establish a working alliance (or therapeutic relationship) between the patient and counselor. A working alliance can be operationally defined as regular contact (e. g. weekly) between the patient and counselor (McHugo et al. , 1995). Until this relationship is established, no efforts are directed at changing the substance misuse. A wide range of strategies exist for engaging the patient in treatment, including assertive outreach, resolving a crisis, attending to basic needs (e. g. medical, housing), and legal constraints (e. g. outpatient commitment). At the persuasion stage, the counselor has a working alliance with the patient, but the focus of the relationship is not on addressing the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s substance misuse. Therefore, at this stage the patient is still actively misusing substances, or has only recently begun to cut down on substance use. The goal of this stage is to convince the patient that his/her substance misuse is an important problem, and to marshal motivation to begin working on that problem. Motivational interviewing (Miller Rollnick, 2002) is one useful strategy for helping patients understand the negative impact of their substance use on their own personal goals. Persuasion groups (Mueser et al. , 2003), in which patients are provided with an opportunity to share their experiences with substance use with a minimum of direct confrontation or social censure, can help patients develop motivation to address their substance misuse. Commitment to work on substance misuse can be operationally defined as an actual reduction in substance misuse (McHugo et al. , 1995), or another change in behavior that is associated with a reduction in risk (e. g. ceasing intravenous administration of a drug). In many cases, the duration of these attempts may at first be inhibited by the self-control skills the patient can marshal: in these instances, re-engagement occurs in close conjunction with training in skills to deal with situations in which previous lapses occurred. Miller Rollnick (2002) emphasize that commitment to change is a function of both motivation and self-efficacy or confidence in being able to change. As previously researchers like Bandura noted, past achievements are much more powerful influences on self-efficacy than verbal persuasion that is unrelated to past performance. The attention of patients is drawn to successful aspects of past control attempts, rather than to their ultimate failure to deal with the substance-related problems up to now. While a sense of self-efficacy tends to have limited generalization across performance domains, commitment to change may sometimes be aided by success in another domain, such as work-related skills that open up options for a viable substance-free life-style. Once the patient has begun to reduce his/her substance use, the motivation to work on substance misuse is harnessed, and the goal of treatment shifts to further reduction of substance use or the maintenance of abstinence. Many of the strategies developed for people with a primary substance use disorder can be used with dually diagnosed patients once they reach the active treatment stage. Examples of interventions at this stage of counseling include cognitive-behavioral counseling to address Ã¢â¬Å"high-riskÃ¢â¬ situations, self-help groups, and social skills training to address substance use situations. Structured activities, such as work preparation or leisure pursuits that decrease opportunities for using substances and divert attention from substance use, can assist in development of substance control. In relapse prevention, the patient has achieved substance control for a substantial period (e. g. at least 6 months). The goals are to both guard against a relapse of substance misuse and to extend the gains made to other areas of functioning, such as social relationships, work and housing. Awareness of vulnerability to relapse can be achieved through continued participation in self-help groups, or individual or group work with substance misuse as a focus. The focus in the relapse prevention stage on other areas of functioning, such as relationships, leisure activities and work, reflects the belief that the better a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s life is, the less vulnerable he/she will be to a relapse of substance misuse. References Miller, W. R. , Brown, J. M. , Simpson, T. L. , Handmaker, N. S. , Bien, T. H. , Luckie, L. F. , Montgomery, H. A. , Hester, R. K. Tonigan, J. S. (1995). What works? A methodological analysis of the alcohol treatment outcome literature. In R. K. Hester W. R. Miller (Eds), Handbook of Alcoholism Treatment Approaches: Effective Alternatives, 2nd edn (pp. 12Ã¢â¬â44). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Monti, P. M. , Abrams, D. B. , Kadden, R. M. Conney, N. L. (1989). Treating Alcohol Dependence. New York: Guilford. Mueser, K. T. , Noordsy, D. L. , Drake, R. E. Fox, L. (2003). Integrated Treatment for Dual Disorders: A Guide to Effective Practice. New York: Guilford Publications Miller, W. Rollnick, S. (2002). Motivational Interviewing: Preparing People to Change Addictive Behavior, 2nd Edition. New York: Guilford. McHugo, G. J. , Drake, R. E. , Burton, H. L. Ackerson, T. H. (1995). A scale for assessing the stage of substance abuse treatment in persons with severe mental illness. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 183 (12), 762Ã¢â¬â767. How to cite Counseling Strategies Paper, Papers
Saturday, December 7, 2019
A look at past, present and future position of crime in Great Britain. A research journal about the past and present aspects of rising crime rates in Britain. The author examines past crime statistics and cause of crime, as well as present increases in crime rates and how this can be changed to secure the future. From the paper: There are aspects of the past, of the present, and aspect of the hopeful future that have influenced this thought. The past defines what crime is and how it affects people, what causes crime and criminals, how much crimes have changed, and why there are crimes. The present shows the rise in crime, current attitudes towards the crime rates, and what is currently being done to bring the rates down. Lastly, the look towards the future will encompass how the system will change to lower these rates, how rates are expected to change, how the publics attitude will change on how to lower the rates, as well as a note not to become too caught up in the solving of the problem. We will write a custom essay sample on Crime in Great Britain or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page